TOPS-20 User's Guide
Appendix A TOPS-20 Commands
This appendix contains a brief explanation of the commands in the TOPS-20 Command Language. The commands are grouped in categories of similar use. Although some of these commands are not described in this manual, the purpose of this list is to make you aware of the full extent and capability of the TOPS-20 Command Language. For a complete description of all TOPS-20 commands, refer to the TOPS-20 Commands Reference Manual.
- System access commands
- File system commands
- Device handling commands
- Program control commands
- Information commands
- Terminal commands
- Batch command
These commands allow you to gain and relinquish access to
the system, to change jobs, and to release and connect
terminals to your job.
The file system commands allow you to create and delete
files, to specify where they are to be stored, to copy them,
and to output them on any device.
These commands allow you to reserve a device prior to
using it, to manipulate the device, and to release it once
it is no longer needed.
The following commands help you create, run, edit, and
debug your own programs.
These commands return information about TOPS-20 commands,
your job, and the system as a whole.
The terminal commands allow you to clear your video
terminal screen, to declare the characteristics of your
terminal, and to control linking to another user's terminal.
The TOPS-20 operating system also has a Batch System to
which you may submit jobs for later execution.
A.1 System access commands
ATTACH Connects your terminal to a designated job.
DETACH Disconnects your terminal from the current job
without affecting the job.
DISABLE Returns a privileged user to normal status.
ENABLE Permits privileged users to access and change
confidential system information.
LOGIN Gains access to the TOPS-20 system.
LOGOUT Relinquishes access to the TOPS-20 system.
UNATTACH Disconnects a terminal from a job; it does not
have to be the terminal you are using.
A.2 File system commands
ACCESS Grants ownership and group rights to a specified
APPEND Adds information from one or more source files
to a new or existing disk file.
ARCHIVE Marks a file for long-term off-line storage.
BUILD Allows you to create, change, and delete
CANCEL Removes files from any of several system queues.
CLOSE Closes a file or files left open by a program.
CONNECT Removes you from your current directory and
connects you to a specified directory.
COPY Duplicates a file in a destination file.
CREATE Invokes your defined editor to create a file.
DELETE Marks the specified file(s) for eventual
deletion (disk files only).
DEFINE Associates a logical name with one or more file,
directory, or structure names.
DIRECTORY Lists the names of files residing in the
specified directory and information relating to
DISMOUNT Notifies the system that the given structure or
magnetic tape is no longer needed.
EDIT Invokes your defined editor to modify a file.
EXPUNGE Permanently removes any deleted files from the
END-ACCESS Relinquishes ownership and group rights to a
FDIRECTORY Lists all the information about a file or files.
MODIFY Changes and/or adds switches to a previously
issued PRINT or SUBMIT command.
MOUNT Requests that a structure or a magnetic tape be
made available to the user.
PERUSE Invokes your defined editor to read an existing
file in read-only mode.
PRINT Enters one or more files in the line printer
RENAME Changes one or more descriptors of an existing
RETRIEVE Requests restoration of a file stored off-line.
TDIRECTORY Lists the names of all files in the order of the
date and time they were last written.
TYPE Types one or more files on your terminal.
UNDELETE Restores one or more disk files marked for
VDIRECTORY Lists the names of all files, as well as their
protection, size, and date and time they were
A.3 Device handling commands
ASSIGN Reserves a device for use by your job.
BACKSPACE Moves a magnetic tape drive back any number of
records or files.
DEASSIGN Releases a previously assigned device.
EOF Writes an end-of-file mark on a magnetic tape.
REWIND Positions a magnetic tape backward to its load
SKIP Advances a magnetic tape one or more records or
UNLOAD Rewinds a magnetic tape until the tape is wound
completely on the source reel.
A.4 Program control commands
COMPILE Translates a source module using the appropriate
CONTINUE Resumes execution of a program interrupted by a
CTRL/C or the FREEZE command.
CREF Runs the CREF program which produces a
cross-reference listing and automatically sends
it to the line printer.
CSAVE Saves the program currently in memory so that it
may be used by giving a RUN command. The
program is saved in a compressed format.
DDT Merges the debugging program, DDT, with the
current program and then starts DDT.
DEBUG Takes a source program, compiles it, loads it
with the appropriate debugger and starts the
DEPOSIT Places a value in an address in memory.
ERUN Runs an executable program in an ephemeral
EXAMINE Allows you to examine an address in memory.
EXECUTE Translates, loads, and begins execution of a
FREEZE Stops a running program.
FORK Selects the fork to which TOPS-20 commands
GET Loads an executable program from the specified
file into memory, but does not start it.
KEEP Protects a fork from being cleared from memory.
LOAD Translates a program (if necessary) and loads it
MERGE Merges an executable program with the current
contents of memory.
POP Stops the current active copy of the TOPS-20
command level and returns control to the
previous command level.
PUSH Preserves the contents of memory at the current
command level and creates a new TOPS-20 command
R Runs a system program.
REENTER Starts the program currently in memory at an
alternate entry point specified by the program.
RESET Clears the current job.
RUN Loads an executable program from a file and
starts it at the location specified in the
SAVE Copies the contents of memory into a file in
executable format. If memory contains a
program, you may now execute the program by
giving the RUN command.
SET Sets various parameters for your job, a
directory, a file, or a device.
START Begins execution of a program previously loaded
TRANSLATE Translates a project-programmer number to a
directory name or a directory name to a
UNKEEP Cancels the kept status of a fork.
A.5 Information commands
DAYTIME Prints the current date and time of day.
HELP Prints information about system features.
INFORMATION Provides information about your job, files,
memory, errors, system status, queue requests,
and other parameters.
SYSTAT Outputs a summary of system users and available
A.6 Terminal commands
ADVISE Sends whatever you type on your terminal as
input to a job connected to another terminal.
BLANK Clears the video terminal screen and moves the
cursor to the first line.
BREAK Clears a terminal links made with the TALK
RECEIVE Allows your terminal to receive links and advice
from other users.
REFUSE Denies links and advice to your terminal.
REMARK Allows you to type many lines of text when using
the TALK command.
SEND Sends a message to another user's terminal.
SET Establishes certain job-wide characteristics for
SET HOST Connects the terminal to another system.
TAKE Accepts TOPS-20 commands from a file, just as if
you had typed them on your terminal.
TALK Links two terminals so that each user can
observe what the other user is doing, yet does
not affect either user's job.
TERMINAL Declares the type of terminal you have, and lets
you inform TOPS-20 of any special
characteristics of the terminal.
A.7 Batch command
SUBMIT Enters a file into the Batch waiting queue.
When it is your job's turn, the commands
contained in the file are executed.
These commands allow you to gain and relinquish access to the system, to change jobs, and to release and connect terminals to your job.
The file system commands allow you to create and delete files, to specify where they are to be stored, to copy them, and to output them on any device.
These commands allow you to reserve a device prior to using it, to manipulate the device, and to release it once it is no longer needed.
The following commands help you create, run, edit, and debug your own programs.
These commands return information about TOPS-20 commands, your job, and the system as a whole.
The terminal commands allow you to clear your video terminal screen, to declare the characteristics of your terminal, and to control linking to another user's terminal.
The TOPS-20 operating system also has a Batch System to which you may submit jobs for later execution.