TOPS-20 Commands Reference Manual
Loads your program into memory, compiling the source file first if necessary. Then it starts the program.
@EXECUTE (FROM) /switch(es) source/switch(es) object,...
are keywords chosen from the list below, indicating your choice of EXECUTE command options. They have different effects depending on their position in the command line: placed before all files in the command, they act on defaults for all; otherwise they affect only the nearest preceding file.
Defaults are shown in the list of switches
|source||is the file specification of the source program. The filename must be of 6 or fewer characters, and the file type of 30 fewer characters; you cannot use a generation number. This argument is not necessary if you supply an object filespec.|
is the file specification of the object program. The filename must be of six or fewer characters, and the file type must be .REL; you cannot use a generation number. This argument is not necessary if you supply a source.
Default (if you give neither source nor object filespecs) - last filespecs and associated switches you gave in a LOAD-class command
Summary of EXECUTE Command Switches (defaults in boldface)
Descriptions of these switches are given below. Although the system will not reject switches described under any of the LOAD-class commands, only those switches commonly associated with EXECUTE are described here.
EXECUTE Command Switches
compiles the file using the BLISS-10 compiler.
Default for files of type .B10 and .BLI
compiles the file using the BLISS-36 compiler.
Default for files of type .B36
compiles the file using the COBOL-68 compiler.
Default for files of type .C68 or .68C
compiles the file using the COBOL-74 compiler.
Default for files of type .C74 or .74C
|/ABORT||stops a compile if a fatal error is detected and returns your terminal to TOPS-20 command level.|
compiles the file using the ALGOL compiler.
Default for files of type .ALG
allows generation of an object (binary) file for each source file given.
compiles the file using the COBOL compiler, either COBOL-68 or COBOL-74, that your installation has stored in the file SYS:COBOL.EXE.
Default for files of type .CBL
|/COMPILE||forces compilation of the source file even if a current object file already exists. Use this switch along with a /LIST or /CREF switch to obtain listings when you have current object files.|
|/CREF||same as /CROSS-REFERENCE.|
creates a file containing cross-reference information for each compilation. The file name is that of the object file; the file type is .CRF. Use the CREF command to obtain a listing of the file. (For COBOL files this switch automatically produces a cross-reference listing.)
|/DDT||loads the DDT debugging program along with your object file.|
|/DEBUG||produces an object file containing debugging information beyond what is usually inserted during compilation. (For FORTRAN programs only, and only if you have not given the /OPTIMIZE switch).|
compiles the file using the FAIL compiler.
Default for files of type .FAI
|/FLAG-NON-STANDARD||indicates nonstandard syntax in a file|
compiles the file using the FORTRAN compiler.
Default in the absence of a standard source file type and a language switch
Default for files of type .FOR
|/LANGUAGE-SWITCHES:"/switch(es)"||passes the specified switches to the compiler that will process the file(s) to which this switch applies. You must include the switches in double quotation marks (" ").|
|/LIBRARY||same as /SEARCH.|
|/LIST||prints a line printer listing of the program in ASCII format; the name of this listing is the filename of the object file. The /CREF switch overrides /LIST when they both apply to the same file.|
|/MAC||same as /MACRO.|
|/MACHINE-CODE||produces a file containing the generated machine code. The filename is that of the object file; the file type is .LST. For high-level languages.|
assembles the file using the MACRO assembler.
Default for files of type .MAC
|/MAP||produces a loader map and stores it in the file object.MAP, where object is the name of the module containing the start address; or (if no start address) nnnLNK.MAP, where nnn is your job number.|
|/NOBINARY||prevents generation of an object (binary) file. Use this switch along with /LIST or /CREF to allow these switches to take effect without producing a new object file.|
|/NOCOMPILE||prevents compilation if the object file is current; otherwise it forces compilation. Cancels the /COMPILE or /RELOCATABLE switch.|
|/NOCREF||same as NOCROSS-REFERENCE.|
prevents the creation of a cross-reference file.
excludes special debugging information from your object file.
prevents the flagging of non-standard syntax in the file.
|/NOLIBRARY||same as /NOSEARCH.|
prevents a line printer listing of the program.
prevents generation of a file containing machine code.
prevents the generation of a globally optimized object file (for FORTRAN programs only).
requires all modules in the object file library (the file accompanied by this switch in the command line) to be loaded even if they are not called by your program. Cancels the /SEARCH switch.
|/NOSTAY||stops the compiler from being placed in a background fork. Use when /STAY is set as a default for the compiler.|
|/NOSYMBOLS||prevents a symbol table from being loaded along with the object file.|
|/NOWARNINGS||prevents display of warnings for nonfatal errors.|
|/OPTIMIZE||generates a globally optimized object file; one that runs as quickly as possible. (For FORTRAN programs only, and only if you do not also give the /DEBUG switch (see the DEBUG command description).)|
compiles the file using the PASCAL compiler.
Default for files of type .PAS
identifies the input file as an object file (regardless of its extension) and prevents compilation of the source file, forcing use of an existing object file even if the object file is out of date.
Default for files of type .REL
compiles the file using the SAIL compiler.
Default for files of type .SAI
|/SEARCH||requires that the object file library (the file accompanied by this switch in the command line) be searched for modules called by your program or by a program subroutine. Only these modules are loaded, along with modules called from system libraries, which are always searched.|
compiles the file using the SIMULA compiler.
Default for files of type .SIM
compiles the file using the SNOBOL compiler.
Default for files of type .SNO
returns your terminal to TOPS-20 command level so that you can perform other work while the system continues to execute your program. You immediately receive the TOPS-20 prompt (@ or $), and can then issue any user command. Be careful not to send incorrect data to programs expecting terminal input. See the CONTINUE command, Restrictions: Programs Competing for Terminal Input.)
This switch saves you from having to: issue a ^T to make sure execution has begun; give a ^C to halt the job; and issue a CONTINUE /STAY command to remain at command level during execution.
loads a symbols table along with the object file (helpful for debugging a program).
displays warnings for nonfatal errors.
Compiling New Sources Only
Before executing programs, the system ordinarily compiles any source (and only those sources) whose write date is more recent that that of the object file of the same name. You can override this action with the /COMPILE or /RELOCATABLE switch.
Using Standard File Types
If you specify source files with standard types (.FOR, .MAC, .CBL, or .ALG) in an EXECUTE command, the system automatically calls the appropriate compiler when compilation is necessary. If you specify source files by filename only, the system searches your connected directory in the above order for a file of this name and a standard type. To execute programs from sources that have nonstandard file types, give a switch to indicate the proper compiler (/FORTRAN, /MACRO, /COBOL, or /ALGOL). A switch will take precedence over a standard file type if they indicate different languages. If no compiler is indicated with either a switch or a standard file type, the FORTRAN compiler is used.
Default Switches Not Passed to Compiler
Only switches specified in a LOAD-class command are passed to the compiler; default switches are not passed. Instead, the system assumes that the defaults for the compiler are the same as the defaults for the LOAD-class command.
Commas Between Filespecs
If you give two or more filespecs separated by commas as arguments to EXECUTE, the loaded programs exist in memory at the same time and will act as a single program. You can use this feature to substitute one module for another under varying conditions or for different applications.
Plus Signs Between Filespecs
If you give two or more filespecs separated by plus signs (+) as arguments to EXECUTE, they are treated as a single file by compilers. Their object module is stored under any filename given as the "object" argument of the command, or (if none) under the last filename in the group and file type .REL.
Indirect Files as Arguments
You can store the arguments (source and object filespecs, switches) of an EXECUTE command in an indirect file, and specify them by typing an at sign (@) and its filespec as an EXECUTE command argument.
Establishing Default Arguments with the SET Command
You can issue the SET DEFAULT COMPILE-SWITCHES command to set up default global arguments to the EXECUTE command. Insert this SET command in your COMAND.CMD file to change your own defaults permanently.
Running LINK Directly
The EXECUTE command automatically runs LINK, the system's loader program, but if you require control of the loading process you can run LINK directly. See the TOPS-20 LINK Reference Manual.
Wildcards Illegal with EXECUTE
The EXECUTE command does not accept wildcard characters (* and %) in a file specification.
Effect on Memory
The EXECUTE command clears any unkept forks from memory, loads the appropriate compiler if necessary, then loads and starts your program.
|COMPILE, LOAD, and DEBUG||other LOAD-class commands for performing related functions|
|RUN||for running executable programs|
- Execute a program, indicating the language with a standard file type.
@EXECUTE CAFN.FOR FORTRAN: CAFN LINK: LOADING [LNKXCT CAFN EXECUTION] END OF EXECUTION CPU TIME: 0.04 ELAPSED TIME: 0.89 EXIT
- Execute a program, indicating the language with a switch. Specify the
/STAY switch to return immediately to TOPS-20 command level.
- Execute two programs, requesting a cross-reference file for one of
@EXECUTE CAFN, TAFN/CREF FORTRAN: CAFN MAIN. FORTRAN: TAFN MAIN. LINK: LOADING [LNKXCT TAFN EXECUTION] END OF EXECUTION CPU TIME: 0.04 ELAPSED TIME: 0.15 EXIT
- Combine two source programs into a single object program, and run this
@EXECUTE CAFN+TAFN FORTRAN: CAFN MAIN. MAIN. LINK: LOADING [LNKXCT TAFN EXECUTION] END OF EXECUTION CPU TIME: 0.04 ELAPSED TIME: 0.16 EXIT
- Execute an ALGOL program, ensuring that the compilation includes
required modules only; request a map.
@EXECUTE /COMPILE/MAP CALEND/ALGOL, ALGMOD.LBR/SEARCH ALGOL: CALEND LINK: LOADING EXIT