TOPS-20 Commands Reference Manual
Displays information about the files in a directory.
@DIRECTORY (OF FILES) filespec,..., @@subcommand
|filespec||is the specification of a file about which you want information.
Default filespec - *.*.*
|@@subcommand||means that, after a final comma, you can give one or more subcommands on successive lines.|
Summary of DIRECTORY Subcommands (defaults in boldface)
|BEFORE date and/or time|
|FIND number of generations||Default number - 1|
|LARGER number of pages|
|OUTPUT filespec||Default filespec - DIR.DIR|
|SINCE date and/or time|
|SMALLER number of pages|
|ACCOUNT||prints the account to which storage fees for the files are charged.|
|ALPHABETICALLY||lists the files in alphabetical order.
|ARCHIVED||restricts the listing to archived files only, visible and invisible, offline and online.|
|BEFORE date and time or day of week (or TODAY) and time||restricts listing to files last written before the date and time given.|
| computes and prints 6-digit octal checksums for the files, either
sequentially and without going beyond the EOF (end-of-file) mark, or by
pages on disk, accounting for holes in files and pages beyond the EOF mark;
output will be followed by letter P in this case.
Default - BY-PAGES
| lists files in order (oldest first) according to
Default - WRITE
|COMPLETE||prints the complete file specification, which includes the structure and directory names.|
|CRAM||compresses formats to reduce printing space and time.|
lists for the specified files, the following:
Default - WRITE
|DELETED||limits descriptions to deleted files that have not yet been expunged.|
|DOUBLESPACE||double-spaces the DIRECTORY command output.|
|EVERYTHING||prints, in this order, the following information about the files:
|FIND n||prints the specifications of all but the n most recent generations of
the files, omitting any files having n or fewer generations.
Default n - 1
|GENERATION-RETENTION-COUNT||tells the number of generations of each file the system will retain in the given directory.|
|HEADING||prints a headline labeling each category of information supplied by the
|INVISIBLE||restricts the listing to invisible files only, both on-line and off-line.|
|LARGER n||lists only files of size greater than n pages.|
|LENGTH||gives the file length in bytes and the associated byte size.|
|LPT||directs the command output to LPT: instead of to your terminal.|
| suppresses the action or information associated with the
specified subcommand. (FILE- LINES refers to the information pertaining to
the individual files, which is the bulk of the DIRECTORY command output.
SUMMARY-LINES refers to the information following the file lines, giving a
total file-count, and total page-count and total checksum if required by
Default - HEADING
|OFFLINE||restricts the listing to (visible) off-line files only, both archived and not archived.|
|ONLINE||restricts the listing to on-line files.|
|OUTPUT filespec||directs the command output to the specified file rather than to your
Default filespec - DIR.DIR
|PROHIBIT-MIGRATION||restricts the listing to files that are never migrated, because they were specified in a SET FILE PROHIBIT command.|
|PROTECTION||prints the protection code (protection number) of the file.|
|RESIST-MIGRATION||restricts the listing to files that the system considers last for migration. These files were specified in a SET FILE RESIST command.|
|REVERSE||causes an ordering subcommand, such as ALPHABETICALLY or CHRONOLOGICAL, to arrange its output in reverse.|
|SEPARATE||lists the complete specification for each file on a separate line (instead of listing successive generation numbers of the file on the same line, separated by commas; and instead of listing files of the same name and different type by file type only, indented under the first complete file specification).|
|limits listing to files last written after the date (or day of week) and time given.|
|SIZE||prints the size of the files in pages.|
|SMALLER n||lists only files of size less than n pages.|
| lists, for the specified files, the following:
Default - WRITE
| gives the name of the user who created the file, or changed the
Default - WRITE
Listing Unneeded Files
In preparation for deleting files so that your directory will fall within disk quotas, you can get a list of your largest files by using the LARGER and/or SIZE subcommands, and of your oldest or least-used files with DATES, TIMES, and BEFORE. With FIND you can discover extra generations of files.
Finding Files of a Particular Age or Size
To examine only files of a certain age or size, give the pair of subcommands BEFORE and SINCE, or LARGER and SMALLER, with appropriate arguments.
Comparing Checksums of Files
You can use the numbers reported by the CHECKSUM subcommand to compare two files: if they have differing contents they will almost certainly yield different values; and identical files will have the same checksums. The CHECKSUM subcommand causes a checksum of checksums as well.
Asterisks Appearing Before Filespecs
An asterisk (*) appearing before a filename in the response to a DIRECTORY command indicates a possible hardware-related error, one caused by a read operation at a marginally functional area of disk. To test whether there actually is an error in the file, use the COPY command to copy the file to a new specification. If the COPY command succeeds, there is no error in the file, and no asterisk will precede the new file specification. If the COPY command fails, you should move the disk to another drive and repeat the command. If it still fails, you may have to write your own program to recover everything but the missing part of the file (usually, just one page).
DIRECTORY-class Commands for Labeled Magnetic Tapes
The FDIRECTORY, TDIRECTORY, and VDIRECTORY commands for labeled magnetic tapes are equivalent to the DIRECTORY command for labeled magnetic tapes. All these commands rewind the tape set to the beginning of the first volume, print a directory of files, then rewind the set again. You can give only these subcommands when using DIRECTORY-class commands with labeled magnetic tapes: ALPHABETICALLY, DOUBLESPACE, HEADING, LPT, NO, OUTPUT, REVERSE, and SEPARATE.
FDIRECTORY (Full DIRECTORY)|
TDIRECTORY (Time-ordered DIRECTORY)
VDIRECTORY (Verbose DIRECTORY)
|other DIRECTORY-class commands for performing related functions|
- Obtain a listing of your files.
@DIRECTORY PS:<HERRICK> 4-UPED.TXT.13 ACCT20.FOR.1 DUMPER.MAC.1 F-O.DIRECTORY.1 FORD.CTL.2,3,4,5,6 MEMO.CMD.1 .FIL.1 .FRM.2 MULTIP.FOR.2 Total of 13 files
- Use a DIRECTORY command with a filespec consisting of wildcard
characters and the account attribute (;A) to find out which files' storage
fees are being charged to account MONITOR.
@DIRECTORY *.*;AMONITOR PS:<HERRICK> FORD.CTL.2 MEMO.FRM.2 Total of 2 files
- Find out what files of type .TXT there are in your connected directory
and in one to which you have group rights.
@DIRECTORY *.TXT, <SARTINI>*.TXT PS:<HERRICK> 4-UPED.TXT.13 MAIL.TXT.1 REMARK.TXT.4 Total of 3 files PS:<SARTINI> CHAP21.TXT.33 CHAPT2.TXT.16 CHAPT3.TXT.8 PRIVATE.TXT.1 TEST.TXT.1 Total of 5 files Grand total of 8 files
- Give a DIRECTORY command with the BEFORE and SINCE subcommands to find
out which files were changed during the week of March 6, 1985.
@DIRECTORY, @@BEFORE 3-12-85 @@SINCE 3-5-85 @@ PS:<HERRICK> DIVIDE.FOR.4 MULTIP.FOR.2 QUOTNT.EXE.1 SQUARE.EXE.1 Total of 4 files
- Give the DIRECTORY command to list all the files in a directory that
you have access to.
@DIR WORK:<HERRICK> WORK:<HERRICK> CALENDAR.TXT.26 COMAND.MIC.3 QUERY.DAVE.1 .GENE.2 RESULT.SCM.1 WEEKLY.STA.15 Total of 6 files